The arc Lamp, the First Electric Lighting

arc lamp idea

The electrification of cities and public lighting has been a challenge and an improvement for all societies.

We are going to talk today is the coal or arc lamp.

It was very important in the nineteenth century , since they were the first streetlights used on public roads.

The arc lamp was the first form of lighting that worked on electricity.  It was already developed in 1810 by Sir Humphry Davy and the bulb was therefore more than 50 years ahead. It was instantly accepted as a good idea and a good replacement of expensive gas lamps with cheap electricity. Over the time, various types of arc developed. A lot of the arc lamps were later supplanted by other types of lighting, and it would really be wrong to forget them, because they have done of about a half century of faithful service.

The arc Lamp: Use

Despite the imperfections were nevertheless necessary applications for the arc lamp. That was because the long distance was the strongest light that was available. Because of the fumes it was mostly for outdoor lighting. The applications were:

  • Lighting of factory and railroad yards .
  • As street lighting . This is done to a limited extent and only in the early 20th century. Previously it was not possible to use arc lamp on the street because there was no electricity grids. Apart from that it was clumsy for streetlights that the carbons after 6 hours had to be replaced again. Therefore they were only used where more light than average.
  • In optical systems such as fire towers and spotlights in theaters. The arc lamp was particularly suitable for use with lamps that were reinforced with mirrors or lenses, because it delivers a high light supply from a small plane
  • In combination with a so-called portable . The Locomobile was a portable steam plant where it could be generated. It consisted of a boiler with a steam engine and dynamo, such was also used to farm machinery to drive them.


The different types of arc lamps were used since other sources were much weaker. Eventually, sooner or later they’re all replaced. Or electric lights, from World War II, by discharge, such as the Xenon lamp. Eventually the oldest lighthouses still continue to use arc lamps. Some lighthouses were replaced only in the 80s of last century. Often thought that a gas discharge arc lamp, but the effect is still significantly different. It is true that in using the arc lamp clearly a predecessor of the gas discharge.

Motion In The Oceanic Currents: Scientists Find Out Why


The constant and dynamic movement of the ocean is more intense and visible on the surface. Waves, tides and surface currents promote the mixing of ocean waters, which has effects on life in the seas. The currents and the waves are influenced by the winds. The winds in turn are influenced by the heat generated by the sun. Marine currents carry large amounts of water and energy in the form of heat, so they influence the distribution of salinity and temperature. As a result, the climate and water productivity are affected.

Physical Properties of Saltwater

Physical Properties of marine water

  • Saltwater has unique properties that distinguish it from other fluids. Within the most important physical properties are its specific high heat, its slight conduction of heat and the great capacity of dissolution. To a large extent these properties depend on temperature, salinity and pressure.
  • The average temperature of the ocean is approximately 17.5 ° C. The maximum temperature is 36 ° C in the Red Sea and the minimum temperature is – 2 ° C in the Weddell Sea in Antarctica. The temperature distribution of the waters depends on the solar radiation and the mixing of the bodies of water in the ocean.
  • The warm surface waters transmit heat to the nearby waters below them forming a productivity zone, approximately 200-400 m. At 1000-1800 m the temperature decreases gradually and under 1800 m the water remains cold.
  • The salinity of the water surface depends largely on evaporation and precipitation. In tropical areas where evaporation is greater than precipitation we are higher salinity water (> 35 0 / 00 ). In coastal regions, freshwater flows near the mouths of rivers and salinity generally does not exceed 15-20 0 / 00 .. In areas of the poles, the process of freezing and melting ice exerts greater influence On the salinity of surface waters. In the Arctic summer, we find the lowest salinity (~ 29 0 / 00 ).
  • The average ocean salinity is 35 0 / 00 but may vary depending on the season, latitude and depth. Overall, temperature and salinity affect water density. In turn, density affects many other parameters such as mixing processes of different masses of water and sound transmission. Stratified water prevents the mixing of surface water with water from the depth, while low stratified water favors mixing.

Formation of Marine Currents

Formation of ocean currents

They are water movements that occur inside the sea. They can be deep currents due to changes in temperature, salinity and density, or surface currents due to the action of the wind.

In the drawing you can see the different temperatures of the oceans. The blue and green colors are cold waters, while the yellow and red colors correspond to the warmer waters.

They are movements of masses of water within the ocean. The origin of these is in the solar radiation and in the redistribution of the heat that yields to the Earth.

The movement of the currents depends on the wind and the density of the water, conditioned by the ocean topography, the distribution of continents and the rotational rotation of the Earth.

Two types of currents can be distinguished:

Surface currents:

They are produced by the wind and influenced by the distribution of the continents and the terrestrial rotation.

In the Northern Hemisphere they move round in a clockwise direction. In the southern hemisphere they move in a circular fashion in an anti-clockwise direction.

Winds that blow westward move these currents in that direction, allowing cold, deep waters with a great amount of nutrients to ascend. These zones constitute Outcrops . They are very rich in fishing, the most important being on the coasts of Peru and California, in America and on the coasts of the Sahara, Kalahari and Namibia, in Africa.

Deep currents:

They are produced by density differences generated by differences in temperature or salinity. That is why these currents are known as thermohalines . They are affected by the topography of the ocean floor and the rotation of the Earth.

In the North Atlantic a stream of cold and very saline water, the arctic current, is generated. It sinks deep moving south.

After the equator at 60 ° south latitude, the current rises to be pushed by another still cooler current, the Antarctic current. This current flows northward through the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Ocean.

The movement of these currents is very slow of 2 to 40 cm / s being able to have a direction opposite to the surface currents.

As the deep currents increases, outcrops occur.

Effect of active water movement on energy
and nutrient in Xeniids

Xeniids Movement

Xeniids (ZEE need ids) do a certain exercise nearly 24 hours a day, a voluntary movement unlike any other oceanic creature in existence. What they do is they wave their arms in the air, slowly yet gently connecting their fingertips together until it forms almost a clasp, like a person wringing their hands together. Then they go back and back in again, doing this over and over in less than ten seconds per up and down motion. Over in Jerusalem, Israel these creatures are affectionately called “Amazing Pulsating Carpets” by Maya Kremian at Hebrew University who has discovered a reason the corals won’t stop moving. Why? In one word:


Every time they move they mix with the water bringing in water filled with rich nutrients while at the same time ridding itself of too much oxygen. In a sense it is similar us to how us humans breathe in and out. Over in Townsville, Australia at the Institute of Marine Science, Katherina Fabricius believes it’s “great to see the mystery solved” because she and her staff “have wondered why it has pulsated for decades” and like other scientists who couldn’t be more thrilled she is ecstatic as to why coral exercise the way they do since Xeniids are the only ones who do this particular kind of exercise, especially for the ocean.


As every scientist knows, photosynthesis is when water and carbon dioxide are transformed by light into food, which is key to coral survival. However, it is the algae within them that does this and in thanks they give a share of the production to their hosts, whether they realize it or not. Single-celled algae that are found in corals, namely Xeniids, photosynthesize like we see in our land bound green plants, but according to Kremien’s team these pulsating corals seem to receive all their sustenance from Zeniids.


Because Xeniidsrequire oxygen for even photosynthesis to work these scientists at both the Hebrew University and at the Institute of Marine Science discovered that if you have too much of a good thing, oxygen, it can destroy the photosynthesis process. Algae have to photosynthesize to allow the coral to survive, but if there is too much oxygen then the amount of carbon dioxide it can use is limited. But Kremian and her people say that to bring carbon-dioxide rich water the Xeniid corals need to get rid of the unused oxygen via their pulsing swishes. That solely relies, however, only if there was too much oxygen, and unfortunately that is unpredictable.


The scientists were dubious, to say the least, and the only way they were able to be sure of this was if they tested the Xeniids themselves, so they put them into water tanks, and sure enough the swishing of water not only allowed an excess of high levels oxygen to be removed by the Xeniids. Unlike corals exposed to average oxygen levels photosynthesis in these Xeniid corals slowed down to a crawl. The conclusion? Swishing actually brings in more food for the corals

Most Dangerous Animals on Earth

Dangerous Animals on the Globe

Many may people think that rhinos, alligators, hyenas, among others are the worlds most dangerous animals. Although their attack on human beings would be serious and dangerous, they are the least likely human killer. This is due to the simple fact that they can be avoided or controlled by the use of common sense and simple precautions. Worlds most deadliest animals are categorized by a variety of factors.

These Dangerous Animals include:

Many animals are categorized as dangerous because of the venom they posses or carry which can injure and/or kill human beings.

1.Venomous snake

These snakes constitutes only a smaller percentage of the snake kingdom yet they are really dangerous to humans.

2.The scorpion

This is another dangerous animals. It is responsible for quite a number of human deaths every year.

3.The jelly fish

This another dangerous animal of the sea best known as the sting master of the sea. It is one of the venomous sea creatures of the world.
It makes use of its tentacles to attack its pray. A single sting from this animal can kill a human being within five minutes.

Those which are physically dangerous.
These include those animals with various characteristics such as; those that posses much speed, those that have strong and countless teeth, those that are fearless.
They include:-

4.The big cat family

This group include tigers,lions,cheaters e.t.c
These animals are able to ran so fast an has strong teeth. They constitute the number of the worlds most dangerous animals.

5.The crocodile

Another threat to human life. They have strong and numerous teeth which they use to catch and tear a prey.

6.The elephants

Despite their number being few and also their approachable image, elephants still stand to be among the deadliest animals. They cause so many human deaths a year.

7.The hippopotamus

Looking lazy and harmless, Hippos can outrun human beings on land and have gapping mouths that can open so many feet wide. They cause so many destruction and are rated one of the most dangerous animals in Africa.

8. The shark

With saw like teeth, sharks have proved to be among the planets deadliest animals.

9.The bear

The bear is known to have a fearsome reputation yet it attack can really be fatal.

Those animals that carry diseases with them.
These animals include:

10.The mosquito

Looking humble, mosquitoes are rated among the worlds most dangerous animals. They carry with them the diseases and transmit them to humans. They are responsible for the largest portion of human deaths.
Apart from transmitting malaria which they are best known for, they also spread diseases like elephantiasis, yellow fever, west Nile virus and the dengue fever.

The world’s most dangerous animals vary from those that seem humble like the mosquito to those that are huge like the elephant and the hippopotamus.
These animals should not be underrated, especially the simple ones as they record the most human deaths every year.

Melting of Glaciers: Ablation

Melting of Glaciers: Ablation

It’s practically impossible to watch the news without hearing something about global warming and how it is affecting the Earth’s Polar Regions. Sea levels are rising and our coastal regions are threatened due to a process called glacial ablation. Increased glacial ablation at continental ice sheets in Greenland and Antarctica is being caused by climate change. A basic knowledge of glacial ablation and how it works can help make sense of the various scientific theories concerning climate change and global warming.

Ablation is when snow and ice are lost from either a glacier, floating ice, or snow cover. This can occur through the processes of melting, evaporation, sublimation, erosion, or calving, and takes place mainly in the warmer summer months. In the lower and middle latitudes, ablation mainly happens through melting, but in higher latitudes where it never gets above freezing, ablation occurs through a process called sublimation. Sublimation allows snow to turn into water vapor without turning into a liquid first.

Calving is a very important and efficient method of glacial ablation. Calving is when pieces of a tidewater glacier or an ice shelf break off and float away as icebergs. This method helps to stabilize the extent of an ice sheet.

Glaciers and their Destructive Consequences

In a phenomenon that is not recent but whose consequences have been worsening in recent times, the melting of glaciers is causing great changes in the climatic and biological conditions of our planet, by increasing water surface levels and reducing Areas.

Recent studies have found that both Antarctica and the Arctic Ocean melting glacier ice has accelerated and has now reached an unprecedented rate.

The situation in the Arctic

Glaciers in Arctic Region

During spring and summer in the Arctic, water ponds are formed on the ice due to the melting of the same, giving the landscape a range of glowing blue. Despite the visual beauty of this phenomenon , a recent study by researchers at a German institute found that these ever-present water tanks are an omen of the great climatic changes that await the Arctic Ocean .

These water pools that form on ice absorb the heat of the sun to a greater degree, thus generating a more rapid melting. It can be said that there are two classes of total ice in the Arctic: new ice, a thin, smooth layer formed during the last cold seasons, and a thicker, more rugged, longer layer remaining there Even in hot seasons.

What the study has shown is that this thick layer has been getting smaller and smaller, leaving new ice formations, which favor the formation of water ponds with their smooth surface. So with more pools of water absorbing the heat of the sun, the faster the total melting of the ice, in a very worrying cycle.

The situation in Antarctica

Glaciers in Antarctica

In Antarctica, the main concern comes from the long-melting Pine Island Glacier and contributing to the rising ocean level. In recent years, the rapid retreat suffered by this glacier led many to think that it could collapse at any time, releasing the layers of ice that currently dampen so they could float to southern seas.

In the last 20 years, the line separating the rocky base of the ocean glacier has been retreating at a rate of more than one kilometer per year; While the glacier itself has been reduced by 3 meters every two years since 1990 and this frequency has increased by 30% for 10 years. These values ​​are truly exceptional, considered in the long term.

The global warming becomes an issue that requires greater attention from governments and human beings in general . The consequences of this phenomenon could be harmful. To continue the increase in the speed of thawing, the planet would lose much of its habitable surface, generating several conflicts, this coupled with the changes that are still being investigated in the living conditions of all organisms on the planet that alter ecosystems And the biosphere in general.

How to Become an Ecologist

How to be an Ecologist

People who respect the environment know that all living beings (people, animals and plants) that inhabit the Earth and keep a fragile balance. If this harmony is broken, for example when there are forest fires or when water is wasted or contaminated it create imbalance in the environment.

Before wanting to be an ecologist you must be responsible, kind and determined not to spoil the environment.

Be responsible to the Environment

Reflections that help us to be responsible:

  • Water:
    It is a limited good. There is not enough water for everyone. That is why we must save it.
  • Waste:
    Pollute a lot. We try to generate as little as possible and recycle all we can.
  • The chemical products:
    They pollute the water and the atmosphere and are difficult to eliminate. We try to use the least possible and use biodegradable products.
  • Energy:
    It has a limit and its abusive use has a price. We reduce energy consumption (electricity, oil …).

Become and Ecologist

Ecology as a science has been taken up by many people all over the world not because of social status or salary but because of the love of nature. Those who seek to become ecologists must have a heart for nature so as to have a fulfilling career life. In a world that is increasingly being industrialized, ecologists are considered the most important individuals to support sustainable development in managing global warming and preserve endangered species.

Ecologists are primarily concerned with issues of the ecosystem and specifically the distribution and relationships among living organisms and between the organisms and their natural environment.

Topics of concern include composition and distribution, biomass, and the changing state of organisms within and even among ecosystems.

Skills Required to Be an Ecologist?

Skill to have to be ecologist

  • Essentially, ecologists aim at explaining adaptations and life processes; abundance and distribution of organisms; the development of ecosystems; the movement of energy and materials through living communities; and the distribution and abundance of bio-diversity in the environment.
  • Ecologists do not normally have typical day because the environment is dynamic and thus to be an ecologists one has to be very adaptive and flexible to work effectively and efficiently. Career opportunities for ecologists range from teachers or lecturer in the field offices, schools or universities, zoo keepers and wildlife reserve staff, environmental researchers and environmental consultants to government and corporate organizations.
  • The common work activities may include: classification of organisms- taxonomy; field surveys; analysis and interpretation of collected data by use of specialized software; performing an environmental impact assessment on new or existing projects; writing reports and making recommendations; teaching on environmental science; habitat creation and management; keeping up to date with new legislation and policies on environmental issues; and contributing ideas on policy changes based on ecological findings.
  • To become an ecologist one has to undergo some studies in ecology. Ecology is a branch of biology that is inter-disciplinary. In this sense, the study involves physiology, genetics, evolutionary biology and ethology. It is the scientific study of relationship among living organisms and how they interact with their natural environment. It helps one to master how ecological functions are affected by biodiversity. It is to a large extent a human science as it is also concerned with city planning or urban ecology, wetland management, natural resource management, human social interaction, economics and community health.
  • The level of education in ecology will depend on ones ambitions and aspiration. For some positions a certificate in ecology will suffice while in some, one has to go for a diploma, a bachelors degree, a masters degree or even a PHD. Normally, one first studies general ecology then take up specialized areas such as flora, fauna, marine, terrestrial, freshwater among others. Courses crucial to ones work as an ecologist include biological sciences, animal ecology, environmental sciences, animal and plant ecology, physiology, environment policy and management, laboratory and field techniques, and conservation management. Science skills that are required to be an ecologist are observation and measurement of natural phenomenon, and designing and carrying out experiments. Research ecologists are required to be skillful in statistical analysis, laboratory approaches and global information systems.

To become an ecologist, however, is not only considered a career but a service to humanity and to all organisms that exist in the universe. Despite being a desirable career choice for those who have the love of nature, one has to make an informed decision when choosing this path because the pay is considerably lower than the pay in other careers. The pros, however, outweigh the cons.

How Does a Fish Measure Distance?

Fish Measure Distance

How far away is the other side of a hill? If you’re looking at a map, it might be a few kilometers. If you’re looking to know, the straight line distance doesn’t mean very much.

What matters is the distance along creeks and rivers. Two streams on opposite sides of a ridge might not connect for hundreds of kilometers, or in some cases, they never meet at all!

The animals determine distance by visual or non-visual cues. Many scientists work hard to model the environment and protect native plants and animals. If you’re trying to protect freshwater environments, then it’s important to know the secrets how they measure distances.

A team of scientists from NOAA and CSIRO wanted to predict how river ecosystems might react to future conditions. They constructed a computer model with two different ways of measuring distances. They used straight line distance like on maps but they also added stream distance – the distance a fish would have to swim.

Some environmental conditions that affect fish, such as air temperature and vegetation coverage, used straight line distances. Other important information, including stream water temperatures, used stream distances. Having the two in the same model allowed these different types of information to interact.

This new system is timely because fish are increasingly under threat from rising water temperatures. Temperature has a strong effect on fish, as most cannot easily control their own body temperatures. In most cases, the best they can do is swim to a cooler patch of water, perhaps shaded by a tree.

The system is already used to model stream temperatures in over 350 000 kilometers of rivers across several states in the United States. But there are still millions of kilometers of rivers all around the world that could use this maths.

Conservation Biology

conversations biology and facts

What is Conservation Biology?

Conservation biology is a recent scientific discipline that was initiated in the 1980s in response to the loss of biodiversity. It is devoted to study the causes of biodiversity loss at all levels (genetic, individual, ecosystem) and how to minimize this loss. This integrates contributions from various other disciplines, such as ecology, genetics, geography, political science, sociology, anthropology and so on.

Principles of conservation biology:


  1. The evolution is the only mechanism capable of explaining biodiversity patterns, so that the answers to the conservation issues must be generated within the evolutionary framework.
  2. Ecological processes are dynamic and not kept in balance (at least not indefinitely), and often functioning under the control of other variable external process.
  3. Humans are part of ecological systems, so human activities should be considered while planning biological conservation.

Why does biodiversity decline?

There are several factors that are causing many populations and species to decline, however in the majority we are involved humans:

  • Habitat loss: when cities grow, or forests are felled to put crops
  • Contamination
  • Climate change
  • Diseases
  • Fragmentation
  • Introduction of predator species
  • Human Overexploitation

Scientific Paradigms

Conservation Biology Pattern

Conservation biology develops within two paradigms – the paradigm of small populations and the paradigm of declining populations.

Paradigms of small populations

This paradigm states that small populations are subject to an inherent risk of extinction, resulting primarily from an increase in exposure to environmental and demographic anomalies and loss of genetic variability.

Paradigms of declining populations

It deals with the processes by which the risk of extinction of a population increases for reasons unrelated to them, and how to alleviate such a decline.

It has also been called ‘extinction vortex’in which inbreeding depression, demographic and environmental irregularities and genetic drift combine to accelerate the decline in population. The rationale is that these factors lead to a loss of genetic variability and consequently the decrease in the biological effectiveness of individuals and an increase in mortality.

Main Factors of Extinction

Biodiversity Declining Rate

According to conservation biology there are four main factors leading to extinction, which are:


Over-exploitation is killing at a rate that is above the maximum sustainable yield. The most susceptible species are those with low intrinsic growth rates, for example, large mammals such as whales, elephants and rhinos. These species become even more vulnerable if they are valuable as food or merchandise.

The loss and fragmentation of habitat

Sometimes the habitat is removed, as in the case of a drained water environment or a forest clearing. More commonly the habitat is fragmented, when part of it is destroyed to build roads, buildings, or make plantations. Habitat fragmentation can be analyzed by considering the dynamics of subdivided populations in small patches. In general there is a close relationship between body size of the animals and the area required for their survival and reproduction; larger animals need more habitat area.

The introduction of invasive species

The third agent of decline is the introduction of exotic species, whether intentionally or not. This can wipe out native species through competition, predation or habitat destruction. The islands of Hawaii are famous throughout the world for the extraordinary number of alien species. But they are also responsible for the elimination of many native plants and birds.

Synergistic interactions

This largely involves secondary extinctions – the extinction of a species due to the extinction of other species on which it depends. The clearest examples of such extinction chains involve predators who disappear when their prey becomes extinct.

What can be done to prevent extinction?

Prevent biodiversity declinng

In general there are two ways of facing the problem of extinction:

  • In-situ conservation: to protect the habitats and ecosystems where endangered species live, through for example a national park (eg: Chinchillas National Park) or private reserve (eg Pumalin)
  • Ex situ conservation: it is considered a last resort when the survival of a species in the wild is no longer safe. Some individuals are taken to a zoo or laboratory to have an “artificial” population in the hope that someday they may be released into their natural habitat (eg, panda bears)

International efforts:

IUCN (International Union for the Conservation of Nature) is one of the main international conservation organizations that have developed a Red List of threatened species which classifies species in different categories according to their extinction risk. This classification helps to focus efforts on species that are at a greater threat level.

Clare Caravan Park: Things to Know

Clare Caravan Park Things to See

Clare Caravan Park is located in the Clare Valley and is a one and a half hours drive north of Adelaide. It is set among vineyards, farms, and marshland. The Clare Valley is well known for its pioneering history, quality wines, and old town pubs. The many wineries in the Clare Valley are open for wine tasting and sales.

Clare Valley Park is set on 30 acres in the Clare Valley. The Park encompasses the McBride Flora and Fauna Reserve featuring flora and fauna unique to the region. Visitors may choose from accommodations ranging from bush-setting campsites to deluxe in suite cabins. Electricity is also available at many of the more rustic campsites. The Park includes modern amenities and is handicapped accessible. The Park also features a clean swimming pool, barbecues, and a kiosk. Clare Caravan Park is open year round and has office hours from 8 in the morning to 6 or 7 in the evening. The Park provides a bush setting for vacationers with ample gum trees providing shade and privacy. The Park is an Accredited Tourism Business in Australia and has an RAA rating of 4 stars.

The Clare Visitor Information Centre is on the Park boundary and will help vacationers select areas to visit during their stay in Clare Valley. Attractions in the area include the Bungaree Sheep Station, Reisling Trail, and Sevenhill Cellars (owned and operated by Jesuits since 1851).

The Valley also hosts the Clare Races on Easter and Oaks Day. The Clare Valley Gourmet Weekend is held in May featuring the local wines and fine food.

Lose yourself in this extraordinary living hedge maze, consisting of over 800 conifers, and enough twists and turns to stump the shrewdest of explorers. When you find your way out, check out the range of giant sized games and handmade goodies in the gift shop.

Scuba Diving in Bali: A Diver’s Paradise

Scub Diving in Bali

One of the most beautiful islands in the world, Bali is the most popular holiday destination in Indonesia. Many visitors prefer to stay in one of the coastal resorts, away from the huge volcanoes and rice terraces.

The waters of Bali are surprisingly little known. Until now they were patrimony of surfers and tourism of beach, but lately they are seeing more and more divers. Diving in Bali is not just an extra to a holiday as some people think.

In fact, the main feature of scuba diving in Bali is the incredible variety in dives. Deep pits and steep walls, coral reefs and outcrops, one of the world’s most famous wrecks, volcanic mountains and huge meadows of marine vegetation. With its marine and colorful diversity there is enough for you to be willing to return.

East of the island is the Lombok Strait, it is the first marine grave just east of the Asian continental shelf. Through this channel flows the greater tide of the earth. Here the Pacific Ocean creates powerful currents and true roller coasters that characterize some of the dives in Bali. This also means that many of the big and strange fishermen visit this water, such as the incredible Luna or Mola Mola fish. The strong currents also clean the waters giving great visibility.
All this combined with the friendliness of the Balinese, excellent climate and white sand beaches make Bali an increasingly sought after destination by divers from all over the world.


Travel to Bali

If you want to remember all the fish you see diving in Bali, you’ll need a small library of marine guides. From fish leaf cockatoos and pygmy seahorses at Secret Bay and Menjangan at the northwest end of the island, to Napoleons and reef sharks in the north and east in Tulamben and Candi Dasa, and Moon Fish and giant jureles in The islands of Nusa Penida and Lembongan, the seabed of Bali are truly fascinating.

There is always something for everyone’s tastes; Let yourself be surprised since you never know what you can see in the ever changing waters of this marine jewel. Experienced divers will be amused by the exciting currents of Nusa Penida, beginners will love the simplicity of the Amed and Padang Bai dives and photographers will flock to the muck diving areas of Secret Bay. But there are two dives you can not miss: USS Liberty – an internationally renowned wreck. Just outside the stone floor of Tulamben lies the most beautiful and colorful you can imagine. Easy access, mild conditions and shallow meaning that anyone can enjoy the splendor this wreck and the multitude of species that have made it his home.

Lembongan Island – Apart from the crowds of Bali Island in Nusa Lembongan is situated Blue Corner where you can see one of the most incredible strange creatures of the sea, the Mola Mola or Luna fish. You will rise to the surface dizzy by the currents so changing but with the satisfaction of seeing one of the fish most desired by any diver.

Diving in Bali

A resort stay in the northeast or east of the island will allow you to enjoy the charms that the island offers you and most dives with easy access. The island of Nusa Lembongan is a great base for divers who want to know what Bali was like 30 years ago.

If you want to do all the best dives that Bali offers you then hire an 8 night Safari, which will take you to the 4 points of the island and all the essential dive points. The transport by land will take you from one destination to another, from Tulamben to the east to Permuteran to the west and by sea to the islands of Nusa Penida and Nusa Lembongan

When to dive in Bali

You can dive in Bali throughout the year although the conditions vary according to the seasons. The Moonfish, sharks and other large pelagics look better in the months of June to September than when the sea can be moved due to the monsoon winds. From December to March is the rainy season (although many days do not rain) there are fewer divers, however visibility can be seen somewhat reduced to the north and west of the island.

Summary of the Bali area

  • Highlights: Small and large animals, reef life, dive with current, wrecks and other activities.
  • Depth: 5 – 40m
  • Visibility: 10 – 45m
  • Currents: They can be very strong
  • Conditions: on the surface Calm
  • Water temperature: 19 – 26 ° C
  • Diving levels: Initiated, intermediate and advanced
  • Diving Points: More than 50
  • Access: Resort
  • Recommended stay: 1-2 weeks

Diving areas

Amed, Candi Dasa-Amuk Bay, Biaha, Liberty Wreck, Menjangan, Padang Bay, Permuteran, Secret Bay, Gili Selang, Tulamben

The 10 best dive sites in Bali

dive sites in Bali

South of Bali

The huge Mola Mola fish in Crystal Bay

If you are in Bali from the months of August to October you try to go to Crystal Bay to have the opportunity to see the giant Mola Mola. From 2 to 3 meters in wingspan, this fish seems prehistoric. Following the cold currents, Mola Mola feeds on microscopic algae. The best opportunity to see them, you have to dive to at least a depth of 30 meters.

Diving with giant mantas in Manta Point

Swimming with manta rays is a pleasure that we would like to play every day. At Manta Point that is possible …. This large pelagic cleaning station attracts manta rays all year round. In addition, diving is very easy and the depth does not exceed 25 meters. However, the temperature of the water can be cooler than in other Bali dive sites down to 21 °.

Diving in Blue Corner

This site is very famous for its current. It is a drift dive where divers are transported by the current, traveling farther and with less effort, creating the sensation of flying. The current can be very strong and only recommended for experienced divers who really have a good experience in drifting dives. During this immersion you will follow a reef at an average depth of 20 meters during which you can see sharks, large rays and also if you are lucky the famous Mola Mola.

Eastern part of Bali

USAT Liberty, the best wreck of Bali

The USAT Liberty wreck in Bali is arguably one of the best wrecks in the world. It is located in the city of Tulamben. Entry into the water can be dangerous for some people due to slippery stones and the waves breaking there. The USAT Liberty is truly an extraordinary experience, a mix of adventure and excitement before a ship that has failed to be colonized by the very fun underwater life of the environment. The proliferation of life is incredible goes from the very big with the fish Napoleon to the very small like the pygmy seahorses.

Gili Selang North, the wonderful garden of corrals

This dive is very technical, but really worth it. The corals are fabulous with a multitude of colors. However, the current can be very powerful which makes this dive, an exclusive place for experienced divers.

Gili Tepekong, the Grand Canyon

This dive is not an easy dive site. This reserved for experienced divers blames the currents that can be very strong, especially the offspring that deserves good attention and above all of being stuck to the bottom. The dive site is beautiful, with a great canyon like a Roman amphitheater and lots of fish. It is possible to see with a bit of luck sharks, turtles and napoleon fish. During the period from August to October, you can also see Mola Mola.

Seraya secret the most famous macro site of Bali

You are a photographer and you like the macro …. this site is for you. In a black sand bottom, a rich but tiny marine life is waiting. You can see the frogfish, seahorses and even rarely the mime octopus. Open your eyes !!!

North West Bali

Secret Bay, another amazing macro site

If you are in the north west part of Bali and want to discover the very small marine life of the area, you have to go in Secret Bay. This diving site is very famous for macro diving. If you are lucky and a good dive-master you could see some toad fish, seahorses, shrimp of all colors and hundreds of other small species. Maintaining your perfect buoyancy is the key to success.

Napoleon Reef, the natural aquarium

This beautiful reef could be a model that all aquarium fans strive to recreate. With a length of half a football field, this reef is a breeding ground where many species of fish reproduce. The variety of corals is impressive and shows why Bali is considered one of the best dive destinations in the world. To admire the magnificence of the place, it is better to snorkel in the deeper areas of the site because unfortunately the upper part of the reef has suffered from bleaching fault to El Niño. Napoleon Reef has become a great place to witness the regeneration of corals.

Things to do in Australia’s North Coast

Things to do in Australia’s North Coast

Cairns is the main destination for vacations focused on the Great Barrier Reef. Located along Australia’s northeastern coast, just up the coast from Brisbane, and welcoming visitors from all over the world, the city has so many guests from Japan considering Cairns a primary getaway that many stores in town have Japanese words beside the English on their signs.. Trip planners can research and book Cairns accommodation, and flights to Cairns at great prices while they select what they will explore of the natural surroundings and attractions in the region such as these popular attractions:

Great Barrier Reef
Tours of the reef are available by plane, helicopter, and boat. Many people book scuba diving excursions. Local guides can tell much of the story and wonders of the Reef as well as provide a safe experience for young and old. Highly recommended and reliable companies are prevalent.

Karunda Scenic Railway
With a Skyrail for spectacular views of mountains, forest, waterfall, and countryside, people can sit back to enjoy the ride. The tour stops off at places to walk and photograph nature, and is well worth the price.

Lagoon and Promenade
A park for relaxation, exercise, recreation, water sports, picnics and barbecues. The tropical weather provides many Cairns days in the sun, and this park area is a great place to take advantage of the sun’s rays.

Cairns is the home of Joe Blake the Snake, mascot of one of the country’s leading basketball teams. Cazely’s Stadium hosts many cricket games, and rugby is also a popular sport in Cairns. Then, the area has some lovely golf courses.

Walking Tracks
All around the green-forested mountains not far from Cairns, people can walk the trails. In local sport and book stores, visitors can find maps of the nearby tracks.

Wildlife Dome
Whatever the weather, rainy or sunny, people can enjoy this adventure. Parrots, lorikeets and other colorful birds fly about freely in the indoor rain forest. Guests can feed and pet koalas, wallabies and other native animals at the Reef Hotel Casino where the huge glass dome is twenty meters high.