From all sense, we have sense of sight, which is the most important. From the moment you came out in your mother’s womb to the very first time you see the face of your parents, our eyes are acting like a video camera that sends several of signals to our brain for processing.
Just take a moment and observe the things around you, would be believe that what you are actually seeing are the beams of light bouncing off the object and into your eyes? You may find it hard to believe, but it’s true. Our human eye is our only organ of vision that detects light. The simplest eyes can do nothing but detect the dark and light color of surroundings, while the more complex eyes can do more than that, it can even differentiate the shapes and colors of things around it.
The discovery of microscope is another pursuit of man to see things beyond the capabilities of our eyes, a remarkable device that enables the human eye by means of a lens or combination of lenses to observe enlarged images of tiny objects. It’s like seeing the world in different perspective.
Majority of microscopes are what we call and what is known as light microscopes since they rely entirely on light to observe the magnified image of an object.
It’s probably the most well known research tool in biology and other field of science.
And within this category, there are two main types of light microscopes, the compound or high power microscopes and the stereo microscopes or what known as the low power microscopes.
These two main categories have its specific capabilities and employs different magnification and illumination level.
Different Types of Microscope
A compound microscope for instance is the most common type of microscopes, used basically for research and also referred to as biological microscope. It is called the high power microscope mainly because it’s magnification power can range up to 1000 times and some can even go up to 1500 times to 2000 times.
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While on the other hand, the stereo or dissecting microscope has a magnification power that range from 10 times to 80 times which is used for examining large specimens such as rocks and fossils, coins, stamps, hair follicles, plant and flower parts and other interesting objects.
Other types of microscope that we have today are the upgraded version of these two main types. These microscopes are usually comes with advanced technology and often times very expensive which is made specifically for medical and research purposes. So browse all those informative pages that we have and learn all types of microscopes and other related topics.
3.Optical Coherence Microscope
The optical coherence microscope or OPM project by the Harvey Mudd College is an exceedingly interdisciplinary method to explore the developmental biology. It was the 1996 NSF award that predominantly financed the OCM project. It has drawn in undergraduate students from every key academic plan at the college, and five faculty members from three academic departments. More than fifty students and faculty from Harvey Mudd College only, have partaken in partnership with others at the Beckman Laser Institute Medical, Center California Institute of Technology, and University of Colorado State from the time when the project has started in 1995. The OCM research knowledge has encourages scientific inquisitiveness and eagerness in numerous students at the same time as the intensification of the research devices offered to faculty further than their conventional customary corrective boundaries.
Optical coherence microscopy has the capability for use in the developmental biology in its capacity to image tissue areas that are unobtainable to standard microscopes. The high light dispersion characteristics of biological tissue make such methods as two-photon and confocal microscopy worthless for imaging a lot underneath the surface covering of tissue. Optical coherence microscopy prevails over this constraint letting three-dimensional imaging of cells or clusters of cells at depths of equal to one millimeter underneath the surface. The concept of the equipment facilitates imaging of biological samples safely and insidiously permitting the procedures to be observed in vivo. The method of the researchers to optical coherence microscopy offers a technique for creating three-dimensional time-lapse movies of tissue formation, an apparent benefit for developmental biologists with the help of contemporary visualization software.
Recently two types of organisms are examined with the microscope, the plant Arabidopsis thaliana and frog Xenopus laevis. In association with researchers and faculty in the Biological Imaging Center of Dr. Scott Fraser at the California Institute of Technology, widespread researches of frog gastrulation have been carried out with the use of the OCM. Andrew Schile concentrated his researches on this procedure creating various time-lapse movies of gastrulation in the frog. Dr Mary Williams of the HMC Biology department has corresponding plant imaging in alliance with Dr. June I. Medford and others at Colorado State University. These researches are concentrated on the dynamic procedure of leaf development or phyllotaxis in the course of plant formation. Specifically, the researchers are investigating the commencement of leaf primordia at the shoot apical meristem.
The achievement of the OCM endeavor has shown the way to innumerable in-print pieces of writings on the progress of the OCM mechanism and the consequences of biological analyses. These pieces of writings in addition to a number of theses papers from seniors caught up in the project, are accessible in full text. Additionally, to be of used in developmental biology, the three-dimensional method to optical coherence microscopy of the researchers has probable clinical uses in dermatology, dentistry, endoscopic medicine and ophthalmology. Furthermore, it is probable that the OCM will be put into operation in the agricultural business to cultivate additional fruitful and nutritious crops.
A fluorescence microscope is a light microscope used to study properties of organic or inorganic substances using the phenomena of fluorescence and phosphorescence instead of, or in addition to, reflection and absorption.In most cases, a component of interest in the specimen is specifically labeled with a fluorescent molecule called a fluorophore such as Green fluorescent protein, fluorescein or DyLight 488. The specimen is illuminated with light of a specific wavelength or wavelengths which is absorbed by the fluorophores, causing them to emit longer wavelengths of light of a different color than the absorbed light. The illumination light is separated from the much weaker emitted fluorescence through the use of an emission filter. Typical components of a fluorescence microscope are the light source, Xenon or Mercury arc-discharge lamp, the excitation filter, the dichroic mirror or dichromatic beamsplitter, and the emission filter.
The filters and the dichroic are chosen to match the spectral excitation and emission characteristics of the fluorophore used to label the specimen. Most fluorescence microscopes in use are epi-fluorescence microscopes. These microscopes have become an important part in the field of biology, opening the doors for more advanced microscope designs, such as the confocal laser scanning microscope and the total internal reflection fluorescence microscope (TIRF). Fluorophores lose their ability to fluoresce as they are illuminated in a process called photobleaching. Special care must be taken to prevent photobleaching through the use of more robust fluorophores or by minimizing illumination.
5.Scanning Probe Microscope
In scanning probe microscopy or SPM, a physical probe is used either in close contact to the sample or nearly touching it. By rastering the probe across the sample, and by measuring the interactions between the sharp tip of the probe and the sample, a micrograph is generated. The exact nature of the interactions between the probe and the sample determines exactly what kind of SPM is being used. Because this kind of microscopy relies on the interactions between the tip and the sample, it generally only measures information about the surface of the sample.
Some kinds of SPMs are:
• Atomic force microscope
• Scanning tunneling microscope
• Electric force microscope
• Magnetic force microscope (MFM)
• Near-field scanning optical microscope
6.Point Projection Microscopes
The field emission microscope, field ion microscope, and the Atom Probe are examples of point-projection microscopes where ions are excited from a needle-shaped specimen and hit a detector. The Atom-Probe Tomograph (APT) is the most modern incarnation and allows a three-dimensional atom-by-atom (with chemical elements identified) reconstruction with sub-nanometer resolution.
Acoustic microscopes use sound waves to measure variations in acoustic impedance. Similar to SONAR in principle, they are used for such jobs as detecting defects in the subsurfaces of materials including those found in integrated circuits.